Las señales de recuperación verbal evitan la renovación y la recuperación espontánea de juicios predictivos en estudiantes universitarios

Palabras clave: señales verbales de recuperación, interferencia retroactiva, renovación, recuperación espontánea, estudiantes de bachillerato

Resumen

Uno de los principales problemas de las psicoterapias es su efectividad a largo plazo porque las conductas poco saludables que se eliminaron exitosamente pueden reaparecer con relativa facilidad bajo ciertos cambios contextuales. En dos experimentos, exploramos el impacto de señales de recuperación verbales en la renovación y en la recuperación espontánea en humanos. En la primera fase, todos los participantes aprendieron una asociación entre una clave y una consecuencia (X-O1). La siguiente fase involucró un cambio en la relación original (X-O2). Finalmente, se les presentó a los participantes la clave X y se les preguntó acerca de las asociaciones con las dos consecuencias. A la mitad de los participantes se les pidió que recordaran la Fase 2, mientras que la otra mitad no recibió ninguna instrucción. En el Experimento 1, la prueba se condujo en un contexto diferente, mientras que en el Experimento 2 la prueba se realizó dos días después. Los resultados indicaron que recordar la Fase 2 eliminó tanto la renovación como la recuperación espontánea. Nuestros hallazgos se discuten bajo la teoría contemporánea del aprendizaje. Asimismo, se mencionan probables beneficios para escenarios terapéuticos.

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Publicado
2018-12-05
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Artículos Originales Breves