Guidelines for writing articles


Manuscripts submitted to Liberabit: Revista Peruana de Psicología should have the following structure:

I) Initial part of the manuscript (first page):

1.  Title:

• Title of the manuscript in Spanish and English.

• In a sentence format, uppercase and lowercase. 


Propiedades psicométricas del Cuestionario para la Evaluación del Síndrome de Quemarse por el Trabajo (CESQT) en profesionales de la salud italianos: una perspectiva de género Psychometric properties of the Spanish Burnout Inventory (SBI) in a sample of Italian health professionals: A gender perspective

2.  Authors:

• Given names should be followed by surnames. Examples:

a) Juan Pablo Barreyro
b) Irene Injoque-Ricle

• Authors should be separated by commas and using the word "y" before the last author's name.


a) Pedro R. Gil-Monte, Sara Viotti y Daniela Converso

b) Adriana V. L. Espósito, Celina Gabriela Korzeniowski y Marina Santini Bertoldi

• Place an asterisk (*) to the corresponding author.


Karina Condea, * *kconde@mdp.edu.ar

3.  Institutional affiliation

• The first page includes the university and/or institution, followed by the country of the authors. Use numbers (superscript) if the authors are from different affiliations (place first, the name of the department you belong to and, followed by a comma, the University).


a) Universitat de València, España

b) Universidad de Turín, Italia

c) Instituto de Investigaciones, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad de Buenos Aires; CONICET, Argentina

d) Departamento de Procesos Básicos, Instituto de Investigaciones, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad de Buenos Aires; CONICET, Argentina

• The institutional affiliation and the mail of each author should be included in the final part of the manuscript, after references, in the order that appears on the first page.

4. Abstract

In the summary and abstract, the wording should be between 150 to 200 words in one paragraph in Spanish and the other in English.

  • In the summary of empirical studies,  you must indicate: Introduction, Objectives, Methods, Results and Conclusions.
  • Example

Introduction: Parents’ promotion of challenges is a resource for adolescents’ positive development and, specifically, it can constitute a resource for adolescents who engage in a high-commitment activity such as elite sports. Objectives: The aim of this work is to present the psychometric properties of the Parents’ Promotion of Challenges Scale in elite athletes and to evaluate the contribution of this variable in the optimal experience, or flow, of these adolescents. Method: A total of 276 adolescents aged between 11 and 19 years (M = 15.71; SD = 1.49) representing Argentinean national teams of different sports participated in the study. Fifty four percent (54%) were males (n = 149) and 46% were females (n = 127). The participants answered a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Parents’ Promotion of Challenges Scale (EPDP), and the Flow State Scale for Adolescents. Results: The Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Component of Variance Analysis and Generalizability Analysis showed adequate indicators of validity and reliability for the EPDP (GFI = .99; AGFI = .98; CFI = 1; RMSEA = 0.0; RMR = .06; SRMR = .06; relative G = .82; absolute G = .81). Parents’ promotion of challenges contributes to the flow through the support dimension and it is only significant for women. Conclusions: This work provides an instrument for professionals working with adolescents and allows to contribute to promote positive experiences in elite sport.

  • The theoretical summary will have an Introduction, State of the art, and a Conclusion.
  • Example:


Background: This article presents an empirical review of the integration of mindfulness and emotional intelligence. Mindfulness is a cognitive intervention model that helps people to develop awareness of their experience in the present moment favoring emotional self-regulation. Similarly, emotional intelligence has been conceptualized as a constellation of abilities related to the perception, understanding and adequate management of emotions within and among people. Both conceptual models are associated with a good sense of well-being and personal development. State of the art: This paper reviews the preliminary scientific evidence published in psychology and education literature, and examines the mediating effects of these two constructs in the process of emotional regulation and quality of life of individuals. Conclusions: The study results indicate that the interaction of mindfulness and emotional intelligence offers important benefits for people’s well- being. It was also reported that emotional intelligence acts as mediator between mindfulness and greater positive emotions. The purpose of this review article is to identify a model of integration for emotional regulation that includes «active ingredients» to influence well-being and the way in which the practice of mindfulness contributes to increase the abilities of emotional intelligence.

5.  Keywords

• Between 4 to 6 words per article, and they should be written in Spanish and English • It starts with a lowercase letter, separated by commas and ends with a period.


Palabras clave: síndrome de quemarse por el trabajo, CESQT, género, análisis factorial confirmatorio, invarianza factorial, profesionales de la salud.

Keywords: burnout syndrome, Spanish Burnout Inventory, SBI, gender, confirmatory factor analysis, factor invariance, health professionals.

II) Manuscript contents

1. Article structure:

a) Empirical Article

• Articles should have the following structure:

a) Introduction

b) Method (see item ii)

c) Results

d) Discussion

e) Conflict of interests

f) Ethical responsibility

g) References

h) Data of the author(s) and corresponding author

i) Annexes (optional)

b) Theorical article

a) Introduction

b) State od the art

c) Conclusion


2). Method

• It should include four sections:

a) Participants:

Detail the sample, number of participants, sociodemographic characteristics of the sample, its obtaining, and the degree of representativeness.

b) Instruments:

The name of the instrument followed by the quotation of the author(s) who created and/or adapted the test, examination, etc., should be written. The description of the instrument should explain the characteristics, internal consistency, and study results.


Cuestionario de datos demográficos. Se diseñó un cuestionario para recopilar los datos demográficos de los pacientes a través del cual se indagaron: sexo, edad, estado civil, nivel de educación, ingresos familiares y lugar de residencia.

Escala de Locus de Control de la Salud en Dios (GLHC; Wallston et al., 1999). La escala GLHC está constituida por seis afirmaciones con opciones de respuesta en escala de tipo Likert de seis puntos que van desde totalmente en desacuerdo con valor de un 1, hasta totalmente de acuerdo con valor de 6, por lo que la puntuación total de la escala oscila de seis a 36 puntos posibles. La consistencia interna de la escala fue estimada a través del coeficiente de alpha en una muestra de pacientes con artritis reumatoide y otra más de pacientes con esclerosis sistémica, habiéndose obtenido coeficientes aceptables de .87 y de .94, respectivamente.

c) Procedure:

Describe in detail all the phases of the research proposal that can go from the planning of the manuscript for the application permits to the safeguarding of the participants' information.

d) Data analysis:

The data analysis processes should be described sequentially, specifying how you plan to perform them (from descriptive analysis to more complex analysis). In addition, you must mention the software you used for data processing.


3. Tables and figures (Publication Manual of the  APA Standards 7th edition, 2019)

a) Tables

. The word “Table” and the number that follows should be in bold and without a period in the end.

. The title of the table should be placed on the next line, italicized and not bolded, with the first letter capitalized and no period in the end.

. A note should be included at the end of the table.

• Notes to tables

The word “Notes” should be italicized and followed by a colon; the rest of the text should not be written in italics and should have a period in the end. There are three kinds of notes to tables according to APA guidelines.

The notes should reflect what cannot be explained in the title or the body of the table itself. There are notes a) General, which provide information on abbreviations, symbols, use of italics or parentheses (example: ETF = Work Enrichment Family), b) Specific, referring to particular information using the word in lower case and superscript (example: Groupo a) and, c) Probability, which describes the use of statistical meanings (example: **p < .01). 



• In-text wording of tables

In the document, the word “Table” and the number that follows should be written in sentence format and unbolded. Capitalize the first letter. The wording should not be redundant to what the table expresses, on the contrary, it should clarify its content.


«La Tabla 2 presenta los estadísticos descriptivos para las escalas y para los ítems del CESQT...» «El modelo obtuvo un buen ajuste a los datos en los dos subgrupos de la variable género (ver Tabla 2). En la muestra de hombres...»

• Figures

The word “Figure” and the number that follows should be written in bold and italics, with a period at the end. The text to the figures should be written in sentence format and unitalicized. Figures may be colored or grey, and should be in jpg format with 300 dpi resolution.

Note on the figures: The note goes under the figure, written in italics and without bold and ending with a period. Then, information is added about the figure, it is written without italics and without bold. 


• In-text wording of figures

In the document, the word “Figure” and the number that follows should be unbolded. Capitalize the first letter.


«De este modo, se configura un modelo bidimensional que pone en relación los recursos que la empresa ofrece al empleado para moderar las demandas propias de la planificación y ejecución. La interacción entre estas dos dimensiones permite predecir el riesgo de enfermedad relacionado con el estrés y el comportamiento activo o pasivo del individuo a través de cuatro tipos de situaciones psicosociales (Figura 1).»

4. Citations (Publication Manual of the  APA Standards 7th edition, 2019)

• Types of citation

a) In the case of a literal citation consisting of less than 40 words, it should include the page or paragraph number, and be enclosed in quotation marks.


En el estudio de Argüelles-Nava et al. (2017), explican sobre la influencia del tratamiento de la DM2 en los pacientes, «implica cambios significativos en el estilo de vida de quienes la padecen, los mismos que serán emprendidos o no en función de una gran diversidad de factores dentro de los cuales las cogniciones juegan un papel relevante» (p. 260).

b) In the case of a literal citation consisting of more than 40 words, it should be written in another paragraph, indented, without quotation marks; and it should include the page or paragraph number.


En estudios recientes utilizaron el Inventario de Expectativas de Autoeficacia Académica (Hernández, 2018) y los resultados de esta investigación fueron:

El análisis dimensional arroja que para la dimensión output, la media aritmética es 1,93 puntos, que convirtiéndolo en porcentaje equivale a 64,33%, lo que significa que los estudiantes presentan un nivel medio de confianza para poder realizar exitosamente las actividades académicas orientadas a la producción de información o evidencias. (Hernández, 2018, párr. 49)

c) Analysis
, paraphrasing, and contextual citations.


En este grupo de pacientes, varios estudios han mostrado consistentemente alteraciones tanto en la capacidad para comprender como para producir prosodia emocional y lingüística (Cohen et al., 1994; Guranski & Podemski, 2015; Harciarek et al., 2006; Heilman et al., 2004; Ross & Monnot, 2008; Zaidel et al., 2002). (...) Es por ello que Snow (2000) afirmó que las evidencias provenientes de pacientes con lesiones del HD no suelen ser concluyentes respecto de una distinción entre prosodia emocional y lingüística.

d) For other types of citations, check APA guidelines.


• Citations according to the number of authors


a) In-text citations enclosed in parentheses only include one surname of each author and the year of publication.


...los planteamientos de Rotter (1954) respecto del locus de control interno (LC-I), que hace referencia a que el individuo se cree directamente implicado en la producción de ciertos resultados y por lo tanto el reforzamiento recae en sí mismo.

b) Depending on the wording type, two types of connectors (& - and) are used between the authors’ surnames. There are two citation styles:

- When authors are not enclosed in parentheses:


Guranski y Podemski (2015), sostienen que la prosodia emocional...

- When authors are enclosed in parentheses:


.... tanto en la capacidad para comprender como para producir prosodia emocional y lingüística (Guranski & Podemski, 2015)

c) In the case of two authors, in-text citations enclosed in parentheses have no comma before the ampersand sign (&).


Se realizó un análisis factorial de grupo múltiple con el programa EQS 6.2 (Bentler & Wu, 2012) El BFI tiene ventajas como su relativa brevedad (44 ítems), con respecto a otros instrumentos como el NEO-PIR y NEO-FFI (Costa & McCrae, 1999)

d) Citations of more than two authors have a comma before the ampersand sign (&).


A pesar de lo anterior, la influencia de la religiosidad sobre la salud ha sido pobremente estudiada en población mexicana (Rivera-Ledesma et al., 2014).

e) In citations of more than 3 more authors, cite all of them the first time; for subsequent citations, write the surname of the first author followed by et al.


Calderón-De la Cruz et la., (2018), explican «La autoeficacia, constructo desarrollado en el marco de la Teoría Social Cognitiva» (párr. 1). 

f) In the case of several citations enclosed in parentheses, authors should be ordered alphabetically and separated by a semicolon.


...los comportamientos en salud en poblaciones y condiciones diversas (Moore, 2014; Pomeranz et al., en prensa; Tsimtsiou et al. 2014) y...

h) Authors’ surnames with a hyphen should be kept the same.


«Explicado por Aquino -Remigio (2018) en su investigación...»

«En otros estudios peruanos, Salas -Blas (2018) explica el uso...»

g) Articles that are under review or unpublished should not be included in citations and references.

h) For other types of citations, check APA guidelines.

4. References (Publication Manual of the  APA Standards 7th edition, 2019)

References are included in the antepenultimate page, before the authors’ information, and should be ordered alphabetically.

There are four types of references’ internal order: 1) alphabetical, 2) chronological, 3) alphabetical by title, and 4) author and coauthors.

a) Alphabetical.

Entries are arranged in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author followed by the initials of the author’s given name.


Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía. (2011). Panorama de las religiones en México 2010. Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía, Secretaría de Gobernación. http://internet.contenidos.inegi.org.mx/contenidos/Productos/prod_serv/contenidos/espanol/bvinegi/productos/censos/poblacion/2010/panora_religion/religiones_ 2010.pdf

Jiménez-Corona, A., & Aguilar-Salinas, C. A. (2013). Diabetes mellitus tipo 2 y frecuencia de acciones para su prevención y control. Salud Pública de México, 55(1), 137-143.

Kremer, H., Ironson, G., & Porr, M. (2009). Spiritual and mind–body beliefs as barriers and motivators to HIVtreatment decision-making and medication adherence? A qualitative study. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 23(2), 127–134. https://doi.org/10.1089/apc.2008.0131

McDonald, R. P. (1999). Test theory: A unified treatment.  L. Erlbaum Associates.

b) Chronological.

It is used to cite multiple works by the same author with different years of publication. List by year of publication, the earliest first.


Gil-Monte, P. R. (2005). El síndrome de quemarse por el trabajo (burnout). Una enfermedad laboral en la sociedad del bienestar.  Pirámide.

Gil-Monte, P. R. (2011). CESQT. Cuestionario para la Evaluación del Síndrome de Quemarse por el Trabajo. Manual. TEA Ediciones.

Gil-Monte, P. R. (2012). Influence of guilt on the relationship between burnout and depression. European Psychologist, 17, 231-236. https://doi.org/10.1027/1016-9040/a000096

c) Alphabetical by title.

When the same author has published two or more works in the same year, the suffixes a, b, c should be used to differentiate the references. After the year of publication, they should be ordered alphabetically by title.


Dominguez-Lara, S. (2016a). Datos normativos de la Escala de Procrastinación Académica en estudiantes de psicología de Lima. Evaluar, 16, 20- 30. https://doi.org/10.35670/1667-4545.v16.n1.15715

Dominguez-Lara, S. (2016b). Intervalos de confianza en el reporte de la fiabilidad: un análisis necesario. Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra, 39(1), 169-170. http://doi.org/10.4321/S1137-6627/2016000100024

d) Author and coauthors.

One-author entries go before those from several authors (regardless of the publication date). References with the second or third coauthor are ordered alphabetically by surname.


Gil-Monte, P. R., Figueiredo-Ferraz, H., & Valdez Bonilla, H. (2013). Factor analysis of the Spanish Burnout Inventory among Mexican prison employees. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 45(2), 96- 104. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027883

Gil-Monte, P. R., & Manzano-García, G. (2015). Psychometric properties of the Spanish Burnout Inventory among staff nurses. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 22, 756- 763. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpm.12255

Gil-Monte, P. R., & Olivares-Faúndez, V. (2011). Psychometric properties of the «Spanish Burnout Inventory» in Chilean professionals working to physical disabled people. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 14, 441-451. https://doi.org/10.5209/rev_SJOP.2011.v14.n1.40


References include only one surname followed by the initial of each author’s given name(s).

References of two authors have a comma before the ampersand sign (&).


Dorn, L., & Machin, M. (2004). Learner driving experience questionnaire. Cranfield University, UK and University of Southern Queensland, Australia.

In references of three to seven authors, the ampersand sign (&) should be used between the last two authors.


Falco, A., Piccirelli, A., Girardi, D., Dal Corso, L., & De Carlo, N. (2013). Risky riding behavior on two wheels: The role of cognitive, social, and personality variables among young adolescents. Journal of Safety Research, 46, 47-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsr.2013.03.002

In references of eight or more authors, the names of the first six authors should be included, followed by an ellipsis (...) and the last author's name. Example:

Ferreira, D., Silva, A., Pereira, J., Silva, F., Wagner, A., Winckler, C.,... Mello, S. de (2015). Sleep quality and psychobiological aspects of Brazilian Paralympic athletes in the London 2012 pre-Paralympics period. Motriz: Revista de Educação Física, 21(2), 168-176. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1980-65742015000200007 

Authors’ surnames with a hyphen should be kept the same.


Aquino-Remigio, S. (2018) ...

Salas -Blas, E.(2017) ...


References having assigned a DOI do not have a period at the end.


Maldonado, A., Vizeu, B., Giacomozzi, A., & Berri, B. (2017). Representações sociais do cuidado ao idoso e mapas de rede social. Liberabit, 23(1), 9-22. https://doi.org/10.24265/liberabit.2017.v23n1.0

Conde, K., Peltzer, R., Lichtenberger, A., Tosi, L., & Cremonte, M. (2017). Razones para cambiar el consumo de alcohol en universitarios. Liberabit, 23(2), 247-258.  https://doi.org/10.24265/liberabit.2017.v23n2.06


References with a Web site should  URL http://…


Hernández-Ávila, M., Gutiérrez, J. P., & Reynoso- Noverón, N. (2013). Diabetes mellitus en México. El estado de la epidemia. Salud Pública de México, 55(1), 129-136. http://www.scielo.org.mx/pdf/spm/v55s2/v55s2a10.pdf

Corengia, A., Pita, M., Mesurado, B., & Centeno, A. (2013). La prediccioìn de rendimiento acadeìmico y desercioìn en estudiantes universitarios. Liberabit, 19(1), 101-112. http://revistaliberabit.com/por/revistas/liberabit19_1/ 9_corengia.pdf


Manuscripts under review and unpublished are not accepted.

All references should be cited in the manuscript.

See more reference models of APA guidelines.


III) The final part of the manuscript (last page)

1). Authors

• Given name and surnames • Affiliation • Author’s brief information • E-mail • the Corresponding author (*)

2). Notes

The author will submit additional information on the study.


«La investigación que se presenta en este artículo fue realizada con subsidios de la Universidad de Buenos Aires UBACyT 2014-17 Código No 20020130100320BA y de la Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica ANPCyT PICT 2011-0826.»

3). Annexes

Annexes are optional and should have a title and correlative number. They should be referenced in the document and presented at the end of the manuscript.


... en el estudio de Burga-León y Escurra-Mayaute (2017), detallan en sus análisis las sintaxis utilizadas en LISREL y SPSS (ANEXO 3) ...

4). Others

• In-text decimals

Decimals are separated by a point both in texts and tables.

• In-text percentages

a) Percentages with decimals are separated by a point (18.5%).

b) There should be no space between the number and the percent sign (18%).

• Superscript, subscript, and Greek letters

Superscripts, subscripts, and Greek letters are not italicized both in texts and tables. Regarding parameter and statistic symbols, lowercase Greek letters should be used for the former (μ, σ) and italicized Latin letters for the latter (M, SD). (APA, 2019)

• In-text abbreviations

APA guidelines explain the use of different Latin abbreviations in the documents (APA, 2019).

• Abbreviation of “number”

The abbreviation for “number” consists of the combination of the uppercase letter “N” with a superscript lowercase letter “o” (N°).

• Thousands and millions

In the documents, thousands and millions are separated by spaces and not comas. A single space is only used to separate thousands when the figure has more than four numbers (e.g., 19 690); when the figure has four numbers, no space is used between thousands (e.g., 1969).

• Zero before a decimal point

Do not use a zero before a decimal point. This rule applies to texts, tables, and figures.


0.79 (incorrect) .79 (correct)